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What Is Diabetes

The Story of Diabetes

Diabetes Diagnosis

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes

Testing for Diabetes

Diabetes Urine Testing     Glucose in Urine
    Ketones in Urine

Diabetes Blood Glucose Test
    Glucose Tolerance Test
    Self Monitoring Of Blood Glucose
    Glycated Hemoglobin

Other Diabetes Tests

Diabetes Treatment & Cure

Diabetes Nutrition     Carbohydrates, Fibre & Proteins
    Fats
    Vitamins
    Minerals
    Trace Elements
    Electrolytes

Nutritive Value Of Common Foods

Diabetes Diet

Planning A Diabetes Diet     Calories & Proteins
    Carbohydrates
    Fibre
    Glycaemic Index (Gi)
    Fats & Cholesterol
    Vitamins, Minerals & Water
    Spacing Of Meals & Food Exchanges
    Sweetening Agents
    Fibre
    Diabetic Foods & Beverages
    Alcohol
    Eating Out

Diet In Type 2 Diabetes

Diet In Type 1. Diabetes

Diabetes Food: Cookery

Diabetes & Exercise

Oral Drugs for Diabetes

Oral Drugs for Diabetes

Groups of Oral Drugs for Diabetes

Combinations Of Oral Drugs

Diabetes Insulin

Types of Insulin

Insulin Administration

Insulin Administration: SYRINGE

Insulin Storage Guidelines

Insulin Injection

Insulin Injection Technique

Problems in Insulin Injection

Complications of insulin treatment

SPECIAL INSULIN SYRINGES

INSULIN RESISTANCE

Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia

Causes of Hypoglycaemia

Prevention of Hypoglycaemia

Complications of Diabetes - SHORT TERM COMPLICATIONS

Complications of Diabetes - LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS

Diabetes Complications: Blood vessels And Hypertension

Diabetes Complications: Heart

Diabetes Complications: Blood Lipids And Brain

Diabetes Complications:Peripheral arterial disease

Diabetes Complications:Eyes

Diabetes Complications:Kidneys

Diabetes Complications:Nervous System

Diabetes Complications:Erectile dymsfuntion

Diabetes Complications:Autonomic neuropathy

Diabetes Complications:Joints & Skin

Diabetes Complications:Life Expectancy

Causes of Foot Problems in Diabetes

Prevention & CARE OF THE FEET

Causes of Diabetes in Children

Diet for Children with Diabetes

Care for Diabetic Children

Diabetes in Women

Menses & Fertility

Gestational diabetes mellitus

PREGNANCY In Diabetec Women

Diabetes in the Elderly

Management of Diabetes: Sick day management

Management of Diabetes: Hospitalization

Management of Diabetes: Surgical operations

Personal Problems

TRAVEL AND HOLIDAYS

Looking Ahead

PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANT

STEM CELL INJECTION & Technological advances

APPENDIX-1

APPENDIX-2

APPENDIX-3

APPENDIX-4

APPENDIX-5

APPENDIX-6

APPENDIX-7

APPENDIX-8

APPENDIX-9

Left Side

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Diabetes Blood Glucose Tests

The terms, "blood glucose" and "blood sugar" should be clarified at the outset. The term, "blood glucose" denotes glucose in blood. The term, "blood sugar", popular in the past, denotes a sum total of glucose and other reducing substances in blood.

Determination of blood glucose is essential for the diagnosis of diabetes, for adjusting the dose of insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, for assessing the control of diabetes and for diagnosis of hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose level).

Blood glucose/sugar level can be estimated by several methods. Some methods for example, glucose oxidase (GOD-POD) estimate blood glucose level only. The Somogyi-Nelson method estimates, in addition to glucose, fructose and galactose if present. The Folin-Wu method estimates other sugars and non-sugar substances (total reducing substances) besides glucose. The latter together average about 15-20 mg/dl in fasting state but after a meal or glucose load the changes are unpredictable (from 30 - 80 mg/dl).

The blood glucose level is at times expressed in terms of millimoles per litre (mmol/1). One millimole per litre glucose is equal to 18 mg/dl.

Blood glucose/sugar level varies according to whether blood is collected from a vein (a blood vessel which carries deoxygenated blood) or a capillary (a very minute blood vessel). Ordinarily blood is not collected from an artery (blood vessel carrying oxygenated blood), to estimate blood glucose. Blood collected from a blood vessel around the elbow or wrist is venous blood. Capillary blood is obtained by pricking the finger tip, heel or ear lobe (the latter two sites used usually in infants).

Capillary blood glucose almost equals venous blood glucose in fasting state but exceeds the latter by 8-61 mg/dl (average 24 mg/dl) for more than two hours after a meal containing carbohydrates. However in children, even in fasting state, the difference ranges from 0 to 26 mg/dl (average 10 mg).

The blood glucose/sugar value differs depending on whether whole blood or plasma (clear supernatant obtained by spinning unclotted whole blood) or serum (obtained by letting the whole blood clot and retract) is used for estimation. Plasma glucose is 10-15 mg higher than whole blood glucose. Serum is usually not used for glucose estimation. The following points should be checked in the blood glucose sugar report: the method, source of blood, whether whole blood or plasma was tested, whether after a meal or a glucose load, whether insulin/tablets were taken on the day of the test or whether these were omitted.

The fasting blood glucose is less than 110 mg/dl. It increases after a meal but does not rise above 140 mg/dl.

In mild diabetes, the fasting blood glucose level may be normal or near normal but the post meal level is elevated. When diabetes is more severe, blood glucose level is elevated in fasting state also.

Blood glucose tested without consideration of the time of the day or meals is called random blood glucose. It has limited value in the diagnosis of diabetes. It is useful in emergency situations. It is also useful to confirm or exclude abnormally low blood glucose. It should not be used for follow-up of diabetes and adjustment of drug dosages. The time of random blood glucose test should be noted.

The term "glycaemia" is used to denote "glucose in blood". The terms, "normoglycaemia", "hyperglycaemia" and "hypoglycaemia" denote normal, above normal and below normal blood glucose levels respectively.